Because of the risk of vaginal stenosis the narrowing or loss of flexibility of the vagina  any current technique of vaginoplasty requires some long-term maintenance of volume vaginal dilationby the patient, using medical graduated dilators to keep the vagina open. Surgeons vary considerably in their techniques and skills, patients' skin varies in elasticity and healing ability which is affected by age, nutrition, physical activity and smokingany previous surgery in the area can impact results, and surgery can be complicated by problems such as infections, blood loss, or nerve damage. Uses authors parameter Articles needing additional references from January All articles needing additional references All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from July Articles with unsourced statements from August Articles with unsourced statements from April Articles with unsourced statements from November Articles with unsourced statements from July Articles with unsourced statements from May Supporters of colovaginoplasty state that this method is better than use of skin grafts for the reason that colon is already mucosal, whereas skin is not. Some surgeons have techniques to ensure continued depth, but extended periods without dilation will still often result in reduced diameter vaginal stenosis to some degree, which would require stretching again, either gradually, or, in extreme cases, under anaesthetic. A tracheal shave procedure is also sometimes used to reduce the cartilage in the area of the throat and minimize the appearance of the Adam's applein order to conform to more feminine dimensions.
She transitioned and had surgery in the mids, and successfully fought to have transgender people recognized in their new sex.
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Regular application of estrogen into the vagina [ citation needed ]for which there are several standard products, may help, but this must be calculated into total estrogen dose. Gender dysphoria In children Health care Pregnancy Sex reassignment therapy surgery to female to male Transsexual. This page was last edited on 22 Aprilat Gender transitioning Surgical procedures and techniques Trans women Transgender and medicine. Vaginoplasty surgery increases the size of the vagina, though not without surgical complications, and often requires repeated dilation of the vaginal opening so that it remains open. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. In extreme cases of shortage of skin, or when a vaginoplasty has failed, a vaginal lining can be created from skin grafts from the thighs or hips, or a section of colon may be grafted in colovaginoplasty.